Flat Feet and Fallen Arches are terms used to describe feet that have a low or no arch when weight bearing. There are two types of Flat Feet. Rigid Flat Foot. This type of foot is structurally flat, therefore, it has the same appearance when weight bearing and non weight bearing. Flexible Flat Foot. This is where the arch is present when non-weight bearing; however, when weight bearing it falls or collapses to a flat foot. This foot type is commonly referred to as Fallen Arches. Both of these foot types may be asymptomatic; however, they are characterised by excessive pronation of the joints of the foot (commonly the subtalar joint). The forces associated with this excessive pronation commonly results in pathological conditions, such as plantar fasciitis and tibialis posterior dysfunction which may cause pain in the feet.
Family history, experts say fallen arches can run in families. Weak arch, the arch of the foot may be there when no weight is placed on it, for example, when the person is sitting. But as soon as they stand up the foot flattens (falls) onto the ground. Injury, arthritis, tibialis posterior (ruptured tendon), pregnancy, nervous system or muscle diseases, such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spina bifida. Tarsal Coalition, the bones of the foot fuse together in an unusual way, resulting in stiff and flat feet. Most commonly diagnosed during childhood. Diabetes. Age and wear and tear, years of using your feet to walk, run, and jump eventually may take its toll. One of the eventual consequences could be fallen arches. The posterior tibial tendon may become weakened after long-term wear a tear. The postario tibial tendon is the main support structure of the arch of our feet. The tendon can become inflamed (tendinitis) after overuse - sometimes it can even become torn. Once the tendon is damaged, the arch shape of the foot may flatten.
Symptoms that should be checked by a pediatrician include foot pain, sores or pressure areas on the inner side of the foot, a stiff foot, limited side-to-side foot motion, or limited up-and-down ankle motion. For further treatment you should see a pediatric orthopedic surgeon or podiatrist experienced in childhood foot conditions.
Diagnosis of flat feet or fallen arches can be made by your health practitioner and is based on the following. Clinical assessment involving visual gait assessment, as well as biomechanical assessment. A detailed family and medical history. A pain history assessment determining the location of painful symptoms. Physical palpation of the feet and painful areas. Imaging such as MRI or x-ray can be used by your practitioner to assist in the diagnosis.
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Non Surgical Treatment
If fallen arches are not causing any pain or discomfort, then they will not need any treatment. If they were causing a persistent pain in the feet, or in the hips, legs or knees, then it would be best to consult your family doctor. Walking is the natural activity of feet and if it is not too painful, sufferers should walk as much as possible to strengthen their arches. When it is possible, go barefoot, or wear soft flexible shoes. In cases of severe fallen arches, your doctor may recommend special shoe inserts.
Fallen arches may occur with deformities of the foot bones. Tarsal coalition is a congenital condition in which the bones of the foot do not separate from one another during development in the womb. A child with tarsal coalition exhibits a rigid flat foot, which can be painful, notes the patient information website eOrthopod. Surgery may prove necessary to separate the bones. Other foot and ankle conditions that cause fallen arches may also require surgery if noninvasive treatments fail to alleviate pain and restore normal function.
Time off work depends on the type of work as well as the surgical procedures performed. . A patient will be required to be non-weight bearing in a cast or splint and use crutches for four to twelve weeks. Usually a patient can return to work in one to two weeks if they are able to work while seated. If a person's job requires standing and walking, return to work may take several weeks. Complete recovery may take six months to a full year. Complications can occur as with all surgeries, but are minimized by strictly following your surgeon's post-operative instructions. The main complications include infection, bone that is slow to heal or does not heal, progression or reoccurrence of deformity, a stiff foot, and the need for further surgery. Many of the above complications can be avoided by only putting weight on the operative foot when allowed by your surgeon.